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LEGISLATION: The Environment Management Act, 2002
Act Number 5 of 2002

The Environment Management Act, 2002
Act Number 5 of 2002



Short title and commencement

1. This Act may be cited as the Environment Management Act, 2002, and shall come into force on the date or dates appointed by the Minister by notice in the Gazette and the Minister may appoint different dates for the coming into operation of different provisions of the Act.


2. (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:

"Act" means this Act and any regulations made under it, and includes regulations made under the Swaziland Environment Authority Act, 1992 that continue to be in force under this Act;

"adverse effect" means any harmful or detrimental effect on the environment, whether actual or potential that-

a. is, or may in future be, more than trivial or insignificant;

b. impairs, or may in future impair, human health; or

c. results in, or may in future result in, an impairment of the ability of people and communities to provide for their health, safety, and cultural and economic well-being, that is more than trivial or insignificant; and

d. the risk of a potential adverse effect occurring shall be deemed to be significant if either it is reasonably likely that the adverse effect may occur, or if it is unlikely that the adverse effect will occur but if it did occur it would be serious or irreversible;

"air" means air not enclosed by a building, machine, chimney or other such structure;

"Authority" means the Swaziland Environment Authority established under section 11;

"Board" means the Management Board of the Authority referred to in section 13;

"body corporate" includes a company, firm, partnership, municipal corporation, or other legal person;

"contaminant" includes any substance, solid, liquid, gas, micro-organism, noise, vibration, heat, radiation or other energy, or thing, or combination of them that has or has the potential to have an adverse effect, or any thing deemed to be a contaminant under the regulations;

"clinical waste" means any waste defined as clinical waste under section 47;

"Director" means the Director of the Swaziland Environment Authority appointed under section 17;

"discharge" includes the emission, deposition, disposal, addition or introduction into the environment of a contaminant directly or indirectly from any point source or diffuse source, whether stationary or mobile, and whether caused or permitted intentionally or unintentionally;

"effect" in relation to the environment, includes any actual, potential, temporary, permanent, or cumulative effect that is more than trivial or insignificant;

"environment" means the whole or any component of:

a. nature, including air, land, water, soils, minerals, energy other than noise, and living organisms other than humans;

b. the interactions between the components of nature and between those components and humans;

c. physical, aesthetic and cultural qualities or conditions that affect the health and well-being of people,

and unless the context otherwise requires, refers only to the environment within the territory of Swaziland or over which Swaziland exercises rights of sovereignty, and "environmental" has a corresponding meaning;

"Environmental Management Strategy" is a broad course of action or initiatives designed to make the best use of resources and opportunities aimed a promoting, enhancing, protecting and conserving the environment;

"Fund" means the Swaziland Environment Fund established under section 20;

"hazardous substance" includes any pesticide, herbicide or other biocide, radioactive substance, chemical, or other substance and any micro-organism or energy form that has properties that, either by themselves or in combination with any other thing, make it hazardous to human health or safety, or to the environment, and includes any substance, micro-organism or energy form defined by regulation as a hazardous substance, and excludes any substance, micro-organism or energy form deemed by regulation not to be a hazardous substance;

"hazardous waste" means any waste defined as hazardous waste under section 47;

"land" includes the surface and subsurface of any land, whether or not it is covered by water;

"Libandla" means the General Council comprising of such members of the Swazi nation as the Ngwenyama may consult;

"litter" means any waste that is discarded in any public place or vacant land, other than in a designated waste receptacle;

"local authority" means a municipal council or a town council established under Part II of the Urban Government Act 1969, or a town board established under Part XIII of that Act, and in relation to a company town, means the company that controls the town;

"Minister" means the Minister responsible for environmental affairs;

"Ministry " means the Ministry responsible for environmental affairs;

"natural resources" means any component of nature, capable of being utilised by humans and includes air, land, water, soils, minerals, energy, living organisms other than humans, and genetic resources, and for the purposes of this definition, "genetic resources" means any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity, of any actual or potential value;

"occupier" means, in relation to any land or premises, any person in actual occupation, in charge of, or responsible for managing, the land or premises, and includes a person occupying a portion of Swazi Nation land with the permission of a Chief, and in respect of Swazi Nation Land that has not been allocated to a particular person, means the Chief of that area;

"organ of Government" means any part of the Government or of local government including a Ministry, a Government department, a municipal council, a town council, and a town board or an inkhundla;

"person" includes any natural or legal person, an organ of Government, and a Public Body;

"premises" means any building or part of a building, and any other structure used to accommodate people, and the land used or occupied in connection with it;

"project" means an enterprise, undertaking or activity, or a proposal or plan for a new enterprise, undertaking or activity or to significantly change an enterprise, undertaking or activity, and includes a plan, operation, undertaking, construction, development, change in land use, or alteration that may not be implemented without a permit, licence, consent or approval issued by or on behalf of a Minister, Public Officer, an organ of Government or a Public Body;

"proponent" means the Government, public body, a private member's Bill mover of corporate body responsible for a Bill, regulation, policy, programme, or plan defined in section 31;

"Public Body" means an organisation that exercises public functions but is not an organ of Government and to the extent that it exercises public functions, includes a body answerable to the Ngwenyama and a public enterprise as defined in section 2 of the Public Enterprises (Control and Monitoring) Act, 1989, and a subsidiary of a public enterprise;

"Public Officer" means a Public Officer as defined in the Civil Service Order, No. 16 of 1973;

"public policy, plan or programme" means a policy, programme or plan which relates to the whole country or a specific region of the country, and which has been formulated by, or will be implemented by, an organ of Government or a public body and without limitation includes policies, programmes and plans relating to national development, the spacial and structural development of urban and rural areas, land use, livestock, transport, the exploitation of minerals, industrial development, water utilisation, and agriculture, and revisions of any of these defined in section 31;

"recover" in relation to waste, means to recycle, re-use or reclaim waste or any other activity which is undertaken with a view to extracting secondary raw materials or generating heat or any other form of energy from waste, and "recovery" has a corresponding meaning.

"regulations," except where otherwise indicated, means the regulations made under this Act;

"special waste" means hazardous waste and clinical waste;

"strategic environmental assessment" and "assessment" means an assessment of the positive and adverse effects that implementation of legislation or of a public policy, programme, or plan is likely to have an impact on the enhancement, protection, and conservation of the environment and on the sustainable management of natural resources defined in section 31;

"sustainable management" means protecting and managing the use of natural resources, in a manner that, while enabling people and communities to provide for their health, safety, and social, cultural and economic well-being:

a. safeguards the life-supporting capacity of air, water, soil and ecosystems;

b. maintains the life-supporting capacity and quality of air, water, soil, and ecosystems, including living organisms, to enable future generations to meet their reasonably foreseeable needs; and

c. avoids the creation of adverse effects wherever practicable, and where adverse effects cannot be avoided, mitigates and remedies adverse effects as far as practicable;

"urban area" means an area within the jurisdiction of a local authority;

"waste" means any substance or thing that the holder discards or disposes of, or intends or is required to discard or dispose of, irrespective of its value to any person, and any substance or thing deemed by a regulation to be waste; and for the purposes of this definition: "holder" means a person in possession of the waste, or a person whose activities produced the waste, or a person who carried out pre-processing, mixing or other operations that changed the nature or composition of the waste;

"water" means water in all its physical forms wherever it occurs;

(2) In this Act, if a penalty is specified:

a. without qualification at the foot of a section; or

b. at the foot of a subsection but not at the foot of the section; or

c. at the foot of a section and expressed to apply to a specified subsection,

then, unless the contrary is expressly provided, that specification indicates that a contravention of the section or subsection, or of the specified subsections, is an offence and that offence is punishable on conviction by a penalty not exceeding that specified.


3. This Act binds the State and all persons over which or over whom the State has jurisdiction.


Site Map
Reference Material

The Environment Management Act, 2002   MS Word 237 Kb

The Flora Protection Act, 2000   MS Word 136 Kb

The Forests Preservation Act No. 14 of 1910   MS Word 24 Kb

The Game (amendment) Act   MS Word 76 Kb

The Game Act   MS Word 81 Kb

The Game Control Act No. 37 of 1947   MS Word 24 Kb

The Grass Fires Act No. 44 of 1955   MS Word 46 Kb

The National Trust Commission Act, 1972 (Amended K.O-I-C 22/1973)   MS Word 97 KB

The Natural Resources Act No. 71 of 1951   MS Word 66 Kb

The Noxious Weeds Act No. 19 of 1929   MS Word 38 Kb

The Plant Control Act No. 8 of 1981   MS Word 121 Kb

The Private Forests Act No. 3 of 1951   MS Word 38 Kb

The Protection of Freshwater Fish Act   MS Word 38 Kb

The Public Enterprises Unit Act No. 8 of 1989   MS Word 47 Kb

The Wild Birds Protection Act   MS Word 29 Kb

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