The Swazis are a Bantu-speaking people who are predominantly Nguni in language and culture. They originate from east central Africa. As part of the Nguni expansion southwards, the Swazis crossed the Limpopo River and settled in southern Tongaland (today called Mozambique) in the late fifteenth century. Their leader was Dlamini, a man of Nguni background.
After 200 years the Swazi people, still under a series of chiefs of the Dlamini clan moved into the region on the Pongola River, where they lived in close proximity to the Ndwandwe people. Later on, economic pressures of land shortage finally brought these two groups to blows, after which battle the Swazis retreated to the central area of modern Swaziland. Here the Swazis continued the process of expansion by conquering numerous small Sotho and Nguni speaking tribes to build up a large composite state today called Swaziland.
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